Feed aggregator

Using artificial intelligence to improve early breast cancer detection

MIT Cancer Research RSS - Mon, 10/16/2017 - 16:59

Every year 40,000 women die from breast cancer in the U.S. alone. When cancers are found early, they can often be cured. Mammograms are the best test available, but they’re still imperfect and often result in false positive results that can lead to unnecessary biopsies and surgeries.

One common cause of false positives are so-called “high-risk” lesions that appear suspicious on mammograms and have abnormal cells when tested by needle biopsy. In this case, the patient typically undergoes surgery to have the lesion removed; however, the lesions turn out to be benign at surgery 90 percent of the time. This means that every year thousands of women go through painful, expensive, scar-inducing surgeries that weren’t even necessary.

How, then, can unnecessary surgeries be eliminated while still maintaining the important role of mammography in cancer detection? Researchers at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL), Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School believe that the answer is to turn to artificial intelligence (AI).

As a first project to apply AI to improving detection and diagnosis, the teams collaborated to develop an AI system that uses machine learning to predict if a high-risk lesion identified on needle biopsy after a mammogram will upgrade to cancer at surgery.

When tested on 335 high-risk lesions, the model correctly diagnosed 97 percent of the breast cancers as malignant and reduced the number of benign surgeries by more than 30 percent compared to existing approaches.

“Because diagnostic tools are so inexact, there is an understandable tendency for doctors to over-screen for breast cancer,” says Regina Barzilay, MIT’s Delta Electronics Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and a breast cancer survivor herself. “When there’s this much uncertainty in data, machine learning is exactly the tool that we need to improve detection and prevent over-treatment.”

Trained on information about more than 600 existing high-risk lesions, the model looks for patterns among many different data elements that include demographics, family history, past biopsies, and pathology reports.

“To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply machine learning to the task of distinguishing high-risk lesions that need surgery from those that don’t,” says collaborator Constance Lehman, professor at Harvard Medical School and chief of the Breast Imaging Division at MGH’s Department of Radiology. “We believe this could support women to make more informed decisions about their treatment, and that we could provide more targeted approaches to health care in general.”

A recent MacArthur “genius grant” recipient, Barzilay is a co-author of a new journal article describing the results, co-written with Lehman and Manisha Bahl of MGH, as well as CSAIL graduate students Nicholas Locascio, Adam Yedidia, and Lili Yu. The article was published today in the medical journal Radiology.

How it works

When a mammogram detects a suspicious lesion, a needle biopsy is performed to determine if it is cancer. Roughly 70 percent of the lesions are benign, 20 percent are malignant, and 10 percent are high-risk lesions.

Doctors manage high-risk lesions in different ways. Some do surgery in all cases, while others perform surgery only for lesions that have higher cancer rates, such as “atypical ductal hyperplasia” (ADH) or a “lobular carcinoma in situ” (LCIS).

The first approach requires that the patient undergo a painful, time-consuming, and expensive surgery that is usually unnecessary; the second approach is imprecise and could result in missing cancers in high-risk lesions other than ADH and LCIS.

“The vast majority of patients with high-risk lesions do not have cancer, and we’re trying to find the few that do,” says Bahl, a fellow doctor at MGH’s Department of Radiology. “In a scenario like this there’s always a risk that when you try to increase the number of cancers you can identify, you’ll also increase the number of false positives you find.”

Using a method known as a “random-forest classifier,” the team's model resulted in fewer unnecessary surgeries compared to the strategy of always doing surgery, while also being able to diagnose more cancerous lesions than the strategy of only doing surgery on traditional “high-risk lesions.” (Specifically, the new model diagnosed 97 percent of cancers compared to 79 percent.)

“This work highlights an example of using cutting-edge machine learning technology to avoid unnecessary surgery,” says Marc Kohli, director of clinical informatics in the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging at the University of California at San Francisco. “This is the first step toward the medical community embracing machine learning as a way to identify patterns and trends that are otherwise invisible to humans.”

Lehman says that MGH radiologists will begin incorporating the model into their clinical practice over the next year.

“In the past we might have recommended that all high-risk lesions be surgically excised,” Lehman says. “But now, if the model determines that the lesion has a very low chance of being cancerous in a specific patient, we can have a more informed discussion with our patient about her options. It may be reasonable for some patients to have their lesions followed with imaging rather than surgically excised.”

The team says that they are still working to further hone the model.

“In future work we hope to incorporate the actual images from the mammograms and images of the pathology slides, as well as more extensive patient information from medical records,” says Bahl.

Moving forward, the model could also easily be tweaked to be applied to other kinds of cancer and even other diseases entirely.

“A model like this will work anytime you have lots of different factors that correlate with a specific outcome,” says Barzilay. “It hopefully will enable us to start to go beyond a one-size-fits-all approach to medical diagnosis.”

Categories: Cancer Research

Auckland beaches, popular public spots and outdoor dining to become smokefree - Auckland stuff.co.nz

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Mon, 10/16/2017 - 16:36

Auckland stuff.co.nz

Auckland beaches, popular public spots and outdoor dining to become smokefree
Auckland stuff.co.nz
Smoking at beaches and outdoor dining areas will soon be a thing of the past in Auckland. Auckland Council approved a policy on Tuesday to increase the number of smokefree outdoor spaces. Beaches, al fresco dining areas and urban centres would be ...

and more »

LETTER: Bruce McComas the wrong choice for health care organization - Peninsula Daily News

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Sun, 10/15/2017 - 08:33

LETTER: Bruce McComas the wrong choice for health care organization
Peninsula Daily News
Most recently, I focused on brain tumors, in particular glioblastomas, after meeting a family in the Port Angeles area with a family member developing this cancer. ... While Indian Island arsenic contamination may have put Jefferson County over the top ...

and more »

LETTER: Bruce McComas the wrong choice for health care organization - Peninsula Daily News

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Sat, 10/14/2017 - 23:29

LETTER: Bruce McComas the wrong choice for health care organization
Peninsula Daily News
Most recently, I focused on brain tumors, in particular glioblastomas, after meeting a family in the Port Angeles area with a family member developing this cancer. ... While Indian Island arsenic contamination may have put Jefferson County over the top ...

and more »

Guardsmen gather for 75th anniversary of Battle of Guadalcanal - Bismarck Tribune

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Sat, 10/14/2017 - 16:30

Bismarck Tribune

Guardsmen gather for 75th anniversary of Battle of Guadalcanal
Bismarck Tribune
World War II veteran Ralph Oehlke, second from right, talks Saturday about a humorous memory from his service in the military band and in the anti-tank company during a discussion with other veterans about the landing at Guadalcanal in the South ...

and more »

Sport: Vanuatu Rugby League rallies behind star - Radio New Zealand

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Thu, 10/12/2017 - 14:45

Radio New Zealand

Sport: Vanuatu Rugby League rallies behind star
Radio New Zealand
Vanuatu Rugby League intends to show its support for star player Jason Pakoasongi, who is battling cancer. The lawyer is the elder statesman of the team, having played in the first ever Vanuatu rugby league team at the International 9's in Sydney in 2012.

Health priorities for the Pacific: Insights from WHO's Regional Committee for the Western Pacific - Devex

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Thu, 10/12/2017 - 09:01

Devex

Health priorities for the Pacific: Insights from WHO's Regional Committee for the Western Pacific
Devex
WHO Director-General Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus (center) at the 68th session of the World Health Organization Regional Committee for the Western Pacific. Photo by: WHO. BRISBANE, Australia — Food marketing and safety, immunization, ...

and more »

Nolan Cecil Gentry - MDJOnline.com

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Wed, 10/11/2017 - 15:48

MDJOnline.com

Nolan Cecil Gentry
MDJOnline.com
He graduated from Montainview High School, joined the US Navy, serving our nation in WWII in the South Pacific aboard the USS Bunkerhill and on Bougainville Island where he saw action in battle. He was honorably discharged in 1946 and later was ...

Soaring global obesity rates come with hefty price tag - CBS News

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Wed, 10/11/2017 - 05:24

CBS News

Soaring global obesity rates come with hefty price tag
CBS News
Those extra pounds can lead to "early onset of conditions like heart disease, cancer and diabetes," as well as "social, psychological problems for the children themselves — more stigmatism, more bullying," Leanne Riley of the World Health Organization ...

and more »

Speaker Cruz introduces bill to ban electronic smoking devices from all establishments - Pacific News Center

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Tue, 10/10/2017 - 21:13

Pacific News Center

Speaker Cruz introduces bill to ban electronic smoking devices from all establishments
Pacific News Center
The aerosol created by e-cigarettes can contain ingredients that are harmful and potentially harmful to the public's health, including: nicotine; ultrafine particles; flavorings such as diacetyl, a chemical linked to serious lung disease; volatile ...

and more »

Johnathan Thurston stands by Jason Taumalolo over Kiwis backflip - Stuff.co.nz

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Mon, 10/09/2017 - 10:21

Stuff.co.nz

Johnathan Thurston stands by Jason Taumalolo over Kiwis backflip
Stuff.co.nz
The Pacific Island nation has been the talking point ahead of the World Cup, which kicks off on October 27, with with a handful of other Kiwis-eligible players joining Taumalolo in opting to play for Tonga along with Australian prop Andrew Fifita ...

and more »

PARS continues to push for RECA - KUAM.com

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Sun, 10/08/2017 - 20:18

PARS continues to push for RECA
KUAM.com
The Pacific Association for Radiation Survivors held a presentation over the weekend at the University of Guam Lecture Hall. Those who have been affected by cancer were invited to learn how PARS is moving forward to ensure that they are heard in the U ...

In Pacific, rising tensions evoke troubling nuclear legacy - Japan Today

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Sun, 10/08/2017 - 15:26

Japan Today

In Pacific, rising tensions evoke troubling nuclear legacy
Japan Today
With fewer than 150 people on the remote Pacific island it was a close community, he says, with few signs of the former U.S. nuclear testing program other than the concrete bunkers he was told to avoid and the sunken ships in the lagoon. But in 1978 ...

In Pacific, rising tensions evoke troubling nuclear legacy - Gears Of Biz

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Sun, 10/08/2017 - 15:26

Gears Of Biz

In Pacific, rising tensions evoke troubling nuclear legacy
Gears Of Biz
The nuclear tests exacted an enormous social toll on Bikini residents and their children, who are now scattered across the Marshall Islands and beyond and have been left without a homeland. Kelen says they've lost the ancestral land that's central to ...

Boy benched during game for wearing pink socks for breast cancer awareness - KOMO News

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Sun, 10/08/2017 - 10:40

KOMO News

Boy benched during game for wearing pink socks for breast cancer awareness
KOMO News
The football team was already wearing pink jerseys, which they do throughout October for Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Robinson said there is no rule about socks and that the coach was being unfair. Robinson said her great grandmother died from breast ...

and more »

In Pacific, rising tensions evoke troubling nuclear legacy - ABC News

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Fri, 10/06/2017 - 13:45

In Pacific, rising tensions evoke troubling nuclear legacy
ABC News
FILE - In this July 25, 1946 file photo, a huge mushroom cloud rises above Bikini atoll in the Marshall Islands following an atomic test blast, part of the U.S. military's "Operation Crossroads." Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands remains ...

and more »

Island Calendar for Friday, October 6, 2017 - Thegardenisland.com

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Thu, 10/05/2017 - 23:05

Island Calendar for Friday, October 6, 2017
Thegardenisland.com
Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee Meeting at Aqua Kauai Beach Resort. 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Open to the public. • Yoga Festival: 6 p.m. 4141 Kilauea Road. Free. Music, dancing, offered by Living ...

and more »

Primo Popcorn: Raging Crab, PINK popcorn, etc.! - KHON2

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Thu, 10/05/2017 - 16:57

KHON2

Primo Popcorn: Raging Crab, PINK popcorn, etc.!
KHON2
Their “Together We Can Make A Difference” PINK popcorn will be sold at their store, online and on select Hawaiian Airlines flights. A portion of the proceeds will be going to The Pacific Cancer Foundation. Primo Popcorn is located at 120 Sand Island ...

and more »

P.M. Tuilaepa to the rescue of Pinktober | Samoa Observer Latest ... - Samoa Observer (press release) (blog)

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Thu, 10/05/2017 - 14:14

Samoa Observer (press release) (blog)

P.M. Tuilaepa to the rescue of Pinktober | Samoa Observer Latest ...
Samoa Observer (press release) (blog)
The Samoa Cancer Society (S.C.S) is singing Prime Minister Tuilaepa Sa'ilele Malielegaoi's praises. In the 11th hour after being given the run around by ...

and more »

While Puerto Rico Fights For Aid, This Long-Forgotten Island Remains 'Slum of the Pacific' - EcoWatch

Pacific Islands Cancer News (Google) - Thu, 10/05/2017 - 07:44

EcoWatch

While Puerto Rico Fights For Aid, This Long-Forgotten Island Remains 'Slum of the Pacific'
EcoWatch
Clean drinking water has to be brought in by ferry from nearby islands. The only health center on the island struggles with insect infestations. The nearest hospital, located on a different island, does not include any oncologists despite the fact that ...

Syndicate content